Goat farming in India has paid a significant role in economic growth of farmers in the country.
It has been practiced by a large population in the rural area as well as its getting popular in sub-urban area as well.
It might be due to the ability of the goat to survive in adverse harsh environment with little shrubs and trees.
Goat farming in India is more popular where the lands are less fertile and many crops cannot be grown.
In pastoral and agricultural subsistence society goat farming in India, is a source of additional income and an insurance against the disaster.
India is a religiously rich country.
Goat has ritualistic and religious importance in most of the societies.
There are thousands of temples where goats are used for ceremonial feasting and as offerings to God.
Demand for the products related to goats and goat farming is the indication about good prospects of goat farming in India.
The advantages of goat farming in India
You will need less initial investment.
Goats have small body size making housing requirement easier.
The return rates are high as they reach maturity in ten to twelve months.
They start giving milk at the age of sixteen to seventeen months.
Also most commonly they give birth to twins.
Water resources is scarce in India and due to the survival capability of goat in drought prone area, goat farming is most popular.
Goats can thrive on wide variety of weed, bushes, crop residues and agriculture by-products which is easily available in Indian villages.
Most of all, Goat farming in India creates employment to the rural poor.
Goat farmers in India are involved in meat goat farming for production of meat and dairy goat farming for milk production.
Goat housing are located in hilly areas that are away from highways.
If you want to start goat farming in India then you should have sufficient space for:
proper drainage system,
milking space and
dry floor for bedding.
Goat housing must have good height and protection against wild animals, weather conditions.
Then you can select the goat by checking the breed available in your area.
Beside that you need to look out for the body shape, milk production, growth pattern and fertility.
The breeds of Indian goat are classified based on their locations.
Himalayan Region – Goat Farming In India
Himalayan breeds of goat are known as Jamba, Gaddi and Kashmiri.
Pashmina breed are raised above 3400 meter elevation in Himalayas.
They produce warmest and softest fiber that varies from 70 to 150 gram per goat.
Chegu breed are famous for good meat, fiber and small quantity of milk.
Northern Region – Goat Farming In India
The northern region of India where the goat farming is practiced is Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
The Milch breed of goat is distributed only in this region.
Beside that you will find other breeds like Jamnunapari, Beetal and Barbari.
The weight of adult buck ranges from 65 to 90 kg and doe weight from 45 to 60 kg.
You can get a average goat milk up to 3 kg.
Central Region – Goat Farming In India
The breeds found in this region are Berari and Kathiiawari.
You can also find Jamunapari breed in some area of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
They yield between 0.6 to 1 kg milk per day.
The goats found in this region are tall, reddish and dark colored.
Southern Region – Goat Farming In India
The breeds available in this region are Surti, Deccania and Tellicherry.
They can produce up to 2.25 kg milk per day.
These breed are farmed in Maharastra, Tamil Nadu, Nasik, Surat, Gujrat and Kerala.
They are generally the mixture of white and black.
Eastern Region - Goat Farming In India
The eastern region consists of Assam, West Bengal, Few parts of Bihar and Orissa.
Goats are found in black, white, brown color.
The breeds found in this region are Bengal and Assam Hilly breed.
These goats are small short and dwarf. Bucks weights 14 to 16 kg and doe weights 9 to 14 kg
Once you get the right goat for your farm, you should take care of the feedings.
You can feed bushes, shrubs, cultivated fodder and roughages adlid.
You also need to protect goats against diseases giving timely vaccines and deworming all your goats.
Today goat farming in India has played a significant role in animal husbandry.
Being a multi functional animal, goat has strong root among Indian farmers.
Meat processing and marketing business has a large scope in India.
It must be due to no religious feeling against it.
Most of the people in India are opting to goat’s milk due to low calories and fat.
The goat farm has turned into a milk farm in India which gives double benefit.
India has a large area of free land which is not suitable for commercial use or agriculture.
In this context goat farming can yield good return.
One goat can fetch up to $200 and can go up to $500 during festival season.
You can earn net profit anywhere between 20 to 25 percent in India.
Even the Government of India under (ICAR) Indian Council of Agriculture Research has formed All India Coordinated Research Project in Goat farming and improvement.
So you can consider goat farming as a small scale business that has a lot of opportunities to success.